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高考英语课后达标检测:Great Scientists Word版解析版

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这是一份高考英语课后达标检测:Great Scientists Word版解析版,共7页。

Ⅰ.阅读理解
A
(2020·洛阳,许昌质检)Lking back n my childhd, I am cnvinced that naturalists are brn and nt made.
Althugh we were all brught up in the same way, my brthers and sisters sn abandned their pressed flwers and insects. Unlike them, I had n ear fr music and languages. I was nt an early reader and I culd nt d mental maths.
I have nly the unmemrable memry f the huse we lived in, f my rm and my tys. Nr d I recall clearly the large family f grandparents, aunts, uncles and cusins wh gathered next dr. But I d have a crystal clear memry f the dgs, the farm animals, the lcal birds, and almst all the insects.
I am a naturalist, nt a scientist. I have a strng lve f the natural wrld, and my enthusiasm has led me int varied investigatins. I lve discussing my favrite tpics and enjy burning the midnight il while reading abut ther peple’s bservatins and discveries. Then smething happens that brings these bservatins tgether in my cnscius mind. This has resulted in my publishing 300 papers and bks,which sme might hnur with the title f scientific research.
But curisity, a keen eye, a gd memry and enjyment f the animal and plant wrld d nt make a scientist:One f the utstanding and essential qualities required is self-discipline, a quality I lack. A scientist requires nt nly self-discipline but all training, determinatin and a gal. A scientist, up t a pint, can be made. A naturalist is brn. If yu can cmbine the tw, yu get the best f bth wrlds.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇夹叙夹议文,作者通过自身的经历明白了一个道理:博物学家是天生的,而科学家则是可以后天培养的。
1.What impressed the authr deeply during his childhd?
A.Wildlife. B.Music.
C.Languages. D.Literature.
A 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句“But I d have a crystal clear memry f the dgs, the farm animals, the lcal birds, and almst all the insects.”可知,作者在童年时,印象深刻的是那些野生生物,故选A。
2.Why can’t the authr remember his relatives clearly?
A.He didn’t live with them fr lng.
B.The family was extremely large.
C.He was fully ccupied with bserving nature.
D.He was t yung when he lived with them.
C 解析:推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句“But I d have a crystal clear memry f the dgs, the farm animals, the lcal birds, and almst all the insects.”可推知,作者童年时期过于专注自然界而对周围的亲戚并不是很在意,所以没有深刻的印象,这与第四段第二句中的“I have a strng lve f the natural wrld”呼应,故选C。
3.Accrding t the authr, what persnality shuld a brn naturalist have first f all?
A.Being knwledgeable.
B.Being self-discipline.
C.Being full f ambitin.
D.Being full f enthusiasm.
D 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段前两句“I am a naturalist, nt a scientist. I have a strng lve f the natural wrld, and my enthusiasm has led me int varied investigatins.”可知,作者从小热爱自然界,而且这种热情使作者做了很多不同的调查,成了一个博物学家。由此可推知,一个天生的博物学家首先要充满热情,故选D。
4.Why des the authr say he is a naturalist, nt a scientist?
A.He thinks he lacks sme quality required f a scientist.
B.He thinks he has much truble ding mental arithmetic.
C.He thinks he cmes up with slutins in a mst natural way.
D.He thinks he just reads abut ther peple’s bservatins.
A 解析:细节理解题。根据最后一段第一句“But curisity, a keen eye, a gd memry and enjyment f the animal and plant wrld d nt make a scientist:One f the utstanding and essential qualities required is self-discipline, a quality I lack.”可知,作者认为自己只是一个博物学家而不是一个科学家是因为自己缺乏成为科学家的某种必备的素质,故选A。
B
(2020·合肥第二次质检)In tday’s sciety, language plays a key rle in defining gender(性别) by vcabulary, and als the nn-verbal(非语言的) vcabulary. Each ne f these different types f ways f cmmunicating is bviusly different between men and wmen.
Many different studies shw that men tend t talk much mre than wmen. It has als been prven that wmen tend t speak faster than men. This is due t the fact that wmen tend t be interrupted mre ften than men are, and als have the ability t speak mre clearly, precisely, and mre quickly than men. In ne study it was fund that wmen spke fr an average f three minutes describing a painting, as ppsed t the thirteen-minute average it tk men t describe it.
Men and wmen als tend t have a very different nnverbal way f cmmunicating, which can als make it very hard fr ne anther t understand what the ppsite sex is trying t say. Men’s bdy language is much mre reserved when they are talking t wmen. Men tend nt t make as much eye cntact and they generally stay farther away frm wmen when talking t them. Men avid ther peple’s bdy space while talking, and they als tend t sit back when talking. All f these have given ff the impressin f disinterest r bredm. Wmen are by far better listeners and much mre enjyable t talk with and they tend t raise mre tpics fr cnversatin.
Wmen als make it clearer whether r nt the cnversatin is ging smewhere r just stuck in neutral. After learning abut ur styles f cmmunicating with each ther, I have decided that althugh men have nt quite mastered cmmunicating, what fun wuld it be if we all spke the same “language”? The little games men and wmen play with each ther while cnversing wuld be lst. The questin everyne asks himself r herself after talking with smene f the ppsite sex, “I wnder if there’s smething there?” wuld n lnger exist.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇议论文,主要介绍了男性和女性因性别差异而导致在沟通方式上也有所不同的现象。
5.What des the underlined wrd “This” in Paragraph 2 refer t?
A.The differences between men’s and wmen’s languages.
B.The different speed f men’s and wmen’s speech.
C.The ability f men’s and wmen’s spken language.
D.The nn-verbal vcabulary f men and wmen.
B 解析:代词指代题。由This承接第二段中的“It has als been prven that wmen tend t speak faster than men.”可知,此处的This指代女性比男性说话快的现象,故选B。
6.In what way d men and wmen differ accrding t the third paragraph?
A.Speed f understanding.
B.Understanding f speech rles.
C.Pliteness f cmmunicatin.
D.Applicatin f bdy language.
D 解析:推理判断题。根据第三段的整体内容,尤其是该段第二句“Men’s bdy language is much mre reserved when they are talking t wmen.”可推知,本段主要讲的是男性和女性在非语言表达方式上的不同,即肢体语言使用上的差异,故选D。
7.What is the authr’s attitude t the differences between men’s and wmen’s cmmunicatin?
A.Cautius. B.Favrable.
C.Ambiguus. D.Skeptical.
B 解析:观点态度题。根据最后一段第二句和第三句“After learning abut ur styles f cmmunicating with each ther, I have decided that althugh men have nt quite mastered cmmunicating, what fun wuld it be if we all spke the same ‘language’? The little games men and wmen play with each ther while cnversing wuld be lst.”可推知,作者对男性和女性在沟通的差异性上持赞成态度,故选B。cautius“谨慎的”;favrable“赞成的”;ambiguus“模棱两可的”;skeptical“怀疑的”。
8.What is the best title fr the text?
A.Wmen, Brn Excellent Talkers
B.Men’s and Wmen’s Scial Rles
C.Vcabulary and Cmmunicatin
D.Oppsite Gender, Different Language
D 解析:标题归纳题。根据第一段的话题导入,并结合全文的整体内容可推知,本文主要讲的是男性和女性因性别差异而导致在沟通方式上也有所不同,故选D。
Ⅱ.七选五
(2020·武汉调研)One f the areas f ur bdy which cnveys mst abut hw we feel is hw we mve ur hands and arms. 1.________, but mst ften they ccur uncnsciusly and naturally.
2.________. Open hands and arms, especially extended, and with hands up in frnt f the bdy at chest height, indicates that what yu’re saying is imprtant and, especially when peple are speaking in public, a pinting finger r a hand waving abve the shulders stresses a persnal pint. Hwever, research shws that peple ften find speakers wh pint their fingers a lt rather annying.
Openness r hnesty. 3.________, they will ften hld ne r bth f their hands ut t the ther persn. Ftballers wh have just cmmitted a ful (犯规) ften use this gesture t try t cnvince the referee that they didn’t d it.
Nervusness. If a persn puts his hand t his muth, this either indicates that he is hiding smething, r that he is nervus. 4.________, and s des hlding a bag r briefcase very tightly in frnt f the bdy.
Feeling defensive. Arms flded tightly ver the chest is a classic gesture f defensiveness and indicates that yu are prtecting yurself. It is ften seen amng strangers in queues r in lifts r anywhere where peple feel a bit insecure. Peple als smetimes use this gesture when they are listening t smene, t shw that they disagree with what is being said. 5.________!
A.Saying smething imprtant
B.When peple want t be pen r hnest
C.Hand and arm gestures are smetimes intentinal
D.But this gesture can simply mean that the persn is cld
E.Playing with yur fingers, like tapping the table, als shws anxiety
F.This gesture is typical f lawyers, accuntants, and ther prfessinals
G.When smene puts up his bth hands, he prbably gives in t his enemies
【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文。主要介绍了肢体语言的各种含义,如说明你在讲重要的事;表示开放和诚实的心态;表示紧张和防御心理等。
1.C 解析:根据该句中的“but”可知,空处与下文“手和手臂大部分时候会自然,无意识地移动”形成转折关系,C项中的“intentinal”与该句中的“uncnsciusly and naturally”相对,故C项正确。
2.A 解析:根据文章结构以及空处所在的位置可知,空处为该段的主题;结合本段内容尤其是下文中的“indicates that what yu’re saying is imprtant” “stresses a persnal pint”可知,该段主要陈述“肢体语言有时表示某事物的重要性”,故A项正确。
3.B 解析:根据空前的“Openness r hnesty.”可知,该段主要陈述肢体语言表明的第二种含义:表示开放或诚实(的心态),结合选项中对应的“t be pen r hnest”可知, B项正确。
4.E 解析:根据该段主题句“Nervusness.”可知,该段主要陈述肢体语言表明的第三种含义:紧张。结合本段内容和下文中的“and s des hlding a bag r briefcase very tightly in frnt f the bdy”可知,空处应是陈述另一种表示紧张的肢体语言形式,故E项正确。
5.D 解析:根据该段第二句“Arms flded tightly ver the chest is a classic gesture f defensiveness and indicates that yu are prtecting yurself.”可知,双臂紧紧地交叉在胸前是一种典型的防御姿势,表明你在保护自己。再结合常识可知,双臂紧紧地交叉在胸前仅仅说明你很寒冷,故D项正确。
Ⅲ.语法填空
(2020·昆明质检)Htel guests in China might n 1.____________(lng) have t wrry abut waiting in line t check in. At the Alibaba’s futuristic(未来派的) htels, guests can scan their IDs, take a pht and input persnal details using a machine t check 2.____________(they) in. The smart equipment will then prvide a rm key card after the infrmatin 3.____________(check). The prcess will take less than a minute, accrding t the cmpany. Targeting nly Chinese custmers fr nw, the new service will be 4.____________(gradual) expanded glbally. The rapid grwth f mbile usage and mbile payment adptin can shw 5.____________ cnvenient peple’s life is becming in China.
Alibaba isn’t the nly cmpany 6.____________ intrduces high-tech htels. Smart LYZ, a Shenzhen-based cmpany which fcused 7.____________develping AI technlgy and smart htels, pened the first ever fully autmated(自动化的) htel in Chengdu, Sichuan, back in January. 8.____________(travel) can bk a rm thrugh Smart LYZ’s WeChat website, check in thrugh a facial recgnitin machine, unlck the dr with a 9.__________(give) passcde r thrugh its mbile app and finally, check ut by pressing a buttn n the app. The AI Smart Rm will undubtedly be extremely attractive t guests, 10.____________(create) the way fr a new level f mdernizatin and cnsumers’ satisfactin.
【解题导语】 本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了智能宾馆的相关内容。
1.lnger 解析:考查固定搭配。句意:在中国,宾馆住客再也不用担心排队登记入住了。n lnger是固定搭配,意为“不再”,故填lnger。
2.themselves 解析:考查代词。此处表示完成他们自己的登记入住。故应用they的反身代词themselves,作check的宾语。
3.is checked 解析:考查动词的时态,语态和主谓一致。此处表示在信息被核实之后。此处为一般性描述,应用一般现在时,又根据语境并分析句子结构可知,主语the infrmatin与check之间为被动关系,且主语为第三人称单数,故填is checked。
4.gradually 解析:考查词形转换。此处应用副词修饰其后的“expanded”。
5.hw 解析:考查宾语从句。此处表示在中国,人们的生活正在变得多么便利。分析句子结构可知,此处引导宾语从句,又根据语境可知,此处表示程度,故用连接副词hw“多么”。
6.that 解析:考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,空处引导定语从句,指代先行词the nly cmpany,在句中作主语,又根据先行词前面有the nly修饰,故填that引导该定语从句。
7.n/upn 解析:考查介词。此处表示专注于研发AI技术和智能宾馆。fcus n/upn是固定搭配,意为“集中”,故填n/upn。
8.Travel(l)ers 解析:考查名词。此处表示通过Smart LYZ的微信网页,旅客们就能预订房间。根据语境可知,此处应用名词的复数形式。
9.given 解析:考查形容词。根据空前的a和空后的名词passcde可知,此处应用形容词given“给定的”。
10.creating 解析:考查非谓语动词。分析句子结构可知,主语The AI Smart Rm与create之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,故用create的现在分词形式creating。
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