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高考英语课后达标检测:A Lesson in a Lab Word版解析版

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这是一份高考英语课后达标检测:A Lesson in a Lab Word版解析版,共7页。

A
(2020·陕西摸底检测) In the stry f The Crw and the Pitcher frm Aesp’s Fables, a thirsty crw(乌鸦) drps stnes int a narrw jar t raise the lw level f water inside s he can take a drink.
Nw scientists have evidence t back up that stry. Crws actually d understand hw t make water displacement(排水量) wrk t their advantage, experiments shw. The results suggest that the birds are, at least in sme aspects, as smart as first-graders.
Researchers, led by Sarah Jelbert at the University f Cambridge, presented six crws with tubes cntaining water. Inside the tubes, a wrm r a piece f meat n a piece f wd was flating, just ut f reach f the crws. In frnt f the tubes, the researchers arranged several rubber erasers that wuld sink, and sme plastic bjects that wuld flat. The crws fund ut that they culd drp the erasers int the tubes in rder t raise the water level and get their snack.
Hwever, the__birds__handled__awkwardly in experiments in which they culd chse t drp bjects in either a wide tube r a narrw ne t get a snack, the researchers said. Drpping bjects int a narrw tube wuld lift the water level by a greater amunt and put the treat within reach after just tw drps; while it tk arund seven drps t raise the snack t the same level in the wide tube. The crws bviusly didn’t realize this, and mst f them went fr the wide tube first.
Previus studies shwed that chimps and human children can slve similar tasks. In a 2011 study, chimps and kids fund ut that they culd put water int a tube t reach a peanut that was flating in a small amunt f water at the bttm.
【解题导语】 本文主要介绍了科学家通过实验对乌鸦智商进行的研究。
1.Hw did the crws get the snack in Sarah’s experiment?
A.By breaking the tube.
B.By drpping in erasers.
C.By standing n the wd.
D.By remving the wd.
B 解析:细节理解题。根据第三段最后一句“The crws fund ut that they culd drp the erasers int the tubes in rder t raise the water level and get their snack.”可知,乌鸦能够把橡皮擦扔到管里,使水位升高,然后吃到零食。所以选B项。
2.What des the authr mean by “the birds handled awkwardly” in Paragraph 4?
A.They were unable t tell different shapes.
B.They drpped bjects nly int narrw tubes.
C.They were nt aware f the snack at first sight.
D.They mstly avided the easier way t get the snack.
D 解析:推理判断题。从第四段可知,实验中的乌鸦在面对粗细不同的管子时,虽然只需往细管里投两次物体就可以够到零食,而需往粗管里投大约七次物体才能够到零食,但是乌鸦往往先去粗管那边,而没有选择更容易获得零食的细管。由此可推知,画线部分是说它们通常没有选择更容易的方式得到零食。
3.What des the text mainly fcus n?
A.Stries f Aesp’s Fables.
B.The develpment f crws.
C.Crws’ intelligence.
D.Human-animal cmmunicatin.
C 解析:主旨大意题。根据第二段最后一句“The results suggest that the birds are, at least in sme aspects, as smart as first-graders.”以及下文中的实验可知,整篇文章都是围绕乌鸦的智商问题来展开的。
4.What d we knw abut crws in the passage?
A.Crws are almst as clever as first-graders in sme respects.
B.Crws understand water displacement cmpletely.
C.Chimps and children are much smarter than crws.
D.The stry f The Crw and the Pitcher lacks evidence.
A 解析:推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句“The results suggest that the birds are, at least in sme aspects, as smart as first-graders.”可知,乌鸦在一些方面几乎跟一年级学生一样聪明。
B
(2020·潍坊统一考试)Plants cannt run r hide, s they need ther strategies t avid being eaten. Sme curl up their leaves, thers prduce chemicals t make themselves taste bad if they sense animals drling n them, chewing them up r laying eggs n them—all signals f an attack. New research nw shws that sme flra can feel a plant-eating animal well befre it launches an attack, letting a plant prepare a preemptive(先发制人的) defense that even wrks against ther pest species.
When eclgist Jhn Orrck f the University f Wiscnsin-Madisn sprayed snail slime—a liquid the animals release as they slide alng—nt sil, nearby tmat plants appeared t ntice. They increased their levels f an enzyme(酶), which is knwn t prevent plant-eating animals. “Nne f the plants were ever actually attacked,” Orrck says. “We just gave them cues that suggested an attack was cming, and that was enugh t cause big changes in their chemistry.”
Initially Orrck fund this defense wrked against snails; in the latest study, his team measured the slimy warning’s impact n anther ptential threat. The investigatrs fund that hungry caterpillars(毛虫), which usually eat tmat leaves greedily, had n appetite fr them after the plants were expsed t snail slime and activated their chemical resistance. This nnspecific defense may be a strategy that benefits the plants by further imprving their verall pssibilities f survival, says Orrck, wh reprted the results with his clleagues in March in Oeclgia.
The finding that a snail’s apprach can cause a plant respnse that affects a different animal made Richard Karban curius, a plant cmmunicatins expert, wh was nt invlved in the study. “It is significant that the plants are respnding befre being damaged and that these cues are having such far-ranging effects,” Karban says. “The research was cmprehensive,” he adds, “but he wnders hw the tmat plants felt chemicals in snail slime that never actually tuched them.”
“That’s the millin-dllar questin,” Orrck says. He hpes future research will make ut the mechanisms that enable plants t sense these relatively distant cues.
【解题导语】 本文主要介绍了一项新的科学研究。研究表明植物会对外在威胁相当警觉,会自动作出反应进行自我保护。
5.Jhn Orrck sprayed a liquid nt sil near tmat plants t ________.
A.make them grw better
B.give them a warning
C.keep plant-eating animals away
D.infrm plant-eating animals f danger
B 解析:推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句“We just gave them cues that suggested an attack was cming, and that was enugh t cause big changes in their chemistry.”可推知,Jhn Orrck在西红柿植株附近的泥土上喷洒液体的目的是给予植物一种警告,让它们能够产生自我保护性反应,且其与第三段第一句中的“his team measured the slimy warning’s impact n anther ptential threat”呼应,故选B。
6.Why is the example f caterpillars mentined in Paragraph 3?
A.T intrduce anther animal.
B.T cnfirm the result f the study.
C.T appeal t peple t prtect animals.
D.T analyze different resistance chemicals.
B 解析:推理判断题。根据第三段第一句“Initially Orrck fund this defense wrked against snails;in the latest study, his team measured the slimy warning’s impact n anther ptential threat.”可推知,文章中提到毛虫的例子是为了验证研究的结果,故选B。
7.What des Richard Karban really want t knw?
A.Hw tmat plants becme aware f danger.
B.What the chemicals in the snail slime are.
C.Whether the research is f practical value.
D.What the finding f the research is.
A 解析:推理判断题。根据第四段最后一句“‘The research was cmprehensive,’he adds,‘but he wnders hw the tmat plants felt chemicals in snail slime that never actually tuched them.’”,并结合对最后一段的整体理解可推知,Richard Karban实际上想了解的是西红柿植株是如何意识到危险的,故选A。
8.What can be a suitable title fr the text?
A.Watchful Plants B.Greedy Animals
C.A Snail’s Apprach D.A Defense Attack
A 解析:标题归纳题。根据文章中的关键词plant,并结合对全文的整体理解可推知,本文主要讲述的是有关植物的科学研究,研究发现植物有对外在威胁或攻击的自我保护性反应,故选A。
Ⅱ.完形填空
(2020·昆明诊断测试)I received 3 missed calls frm a number I didn’t recgnize tday. I __1__ it was smething t d with an accident I had recently. I was ready t answer __2__ when the number called a 4th time. __3__, I was asked if I was Jessica and if I had __4__ anything. I said I didn’t think s and __5__ wh it was.
It was a man called Darren wh __6__ he was behind me in the shp this mrning. As I was leaving, my purse __7__. He picked it up and __8__ t see where I had gne but he culdn’t see me any mre. S he pened my purse and called the __9__ inside it.
I have just been t __10__ him t get my purse back, nly t find ut Darren is __11__ and lives rugh in the streets f Cardiff. He even aplgized as he said he had taken ut sme __12__ t call me t return my purse. But __13__ a few punds used t cntact me, everything was all still __14__. I admit that I wuldn’t have blamed him if he’d spent mre f the __15__.
I felt __16__ that smene returned it, and that the persn wh returned it was smene wh had __17__. It made me __18__ nt nly was I lucky that my purse was fund by smene __19__, but that I was ging t a warm hme.
The __20__ wuld be a much better place with mre kind peple like Darren in it.
【解题导语】 本文通过作者的钱包失而复得的故事告诉我们:只要人人都能够善良对待他人,我们的世界将会变成更加美好的地方。
1.A.assumed B.prmised
C.declared D.agreed
A 解析:根据语境可知,作者有三个来自同一号码的未接来电,作者认为(assumed)这和自己最近的一起事故有关。prmise “许诺”;declare “宣布”;agree “同意”。
2.A.gently B.gratefully
C.humrusly D.eagerly
D 解析:根据上文“I ______ it was smething t d with an accident I had recently.”可推知,作者渴望(eagerly)去接这通电话。gently“温和地”;gratefully “感激地”;humrusly “幽默地”。
3.A.Often B.Instead
C.Still D.Besides
B 解析:根据上文可知,作者认为那通电话和自己的一起事故有关,但是接通电话后才知道并非如此。此处前后表示转折,故Instead “相反”符合语境。
4.A.explred B.bught
C.lst D.checked
C 解析:根据第二段和第三段的描述可推知,Darren捡到了作者的钱包,因此他打电话问作者是否丢了(lst)什么东西。
5.A.frgt B.remembered
C.suspected D.asked
D 解析:根据语境可知,作者接电话时并不知道打电话的人是谁,因此作者问(asked)对方是谁。frget “忘记”;remember “记得”;suspect “怀疑”。
6.A.explained B.requested
C.repeated D.believed
A 解析:根据语境可推知,Darren向作者解释(explained)了事情的经过。
7.A.brke B.failed
C.drpped D.disappeared
C 解析:根据语境可知,作者离开商店的时候钱包掉在(drpped)地上了。
8.A.walked away B.lked arund
C.turned up D.gt thrugh
B 解析:根据语境并结合常识可推知,Darren环顾(lked arund)四周寻找作者。
9.A.card B.address
C.bill D.number
D 解析:根据语境可知,Darren找不到作者,于是打开作者的钱包,拨打了里面的号码(number)。
10.A.meet B.questin
C.beg D.remind
A 解析:根据语境可知,通过电话后,作者去见(meet)Darren以拿回自己的钱包。
11.A.hpeful B.helpful
C.hmeless D.speechless
C 解析:根据本句中的“lives rugh in the streets f Cardiff”可推知,Darren是一个无家可归的(hmeless)人。
12.A.pictures B.change
C.tickets D.jewelry
B 解析:根据上文可推知,Darren很穷,他不得不从作者的钱包里拿出一些零钱(change)给作者打电话。
13.A.in spite f B.in terms f
C.wing t D.apart frm
D 解析:根据语境及该句中的“But”可推知,Darren除了(apart frm)从作者的钱包里拿出几英镑和作者联系外,其余的东西都没动(untuched)。
14.A.untuched B.unlimited
C.classified D.cnsumed
A 解析:参见上题解析。untuched “原封未动的”符合语境。
15.A.time B.effrt
C.cash D.energy
C 解析:作者承认,即使Darren从自己的钱包里多拿一些现金(cash),作者也不会责怪他。
16.A.embarrassed B.surprised
C.wrried D.relaxed
B 解析:作者的钱包丢了,有人捡到并归还给作者,而且这个人一无所有(nthing),这让作者感到惊讶(surprised)。
17.A.everything B.smething
C.anything D.nthing
D 解析:参见上题解析。nthing “没有什么”符合语境。
18.A.realize B.cnsider
C.recall D.imagine
A 解析:根据语境可知,这件事让作者意识到(realize)自己是幸运的,因为自己丢失的钱包被一个诚实的(hnest)人捡到,并且作者将回到一个温暖的家。
19.A.familiar B.plite
C.hnest D.wise
C 解析:参见上题解析。
20.A.shp B.wrld
C.envirnment D.street
B 解析:根据语境可知,如果这个世界有更多像Darren这样善良的人存在的话,这个世界(wrld)将会是一个更加美好的地方。
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